Emerging risk

According to EFSA: “An emerging risk to human, animal and/or plant health is understood as a risk resulting from a newly identified hazard to which a significant exposure may occur or from an unexpected new or increased significant exposure and/or susceptibility to a known hazard.

Assessment of an emerging risk

Characterized by the early detection of facts related to that risk derived either from research and/or from monitoring programs or episodic observations. The evidence supporting the identification of an emerging risk should preferably be in the form of an “indicator” (e.g., measurement and/or observation) and of a trend over time or space. Ideally, an “indicator”, should be reliable, sensitive, quantifiable and should provide the information on the nature of the hazard (agent/process involved)”.

Holistic risk assessment

An approach to risk assessment which is embedded in a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of the food system, including positive and negative health, environment and economic dimensions.

Risk-benefit Assessment (RBA)

Risk‐benefit assessment (RBA) of foods, a relatively new methodology for decision support, integrates nutrition, toxicology, microbiology, chemistry and human epidemiology for a comprehensive health impact assessment. By integrating health risks and benefits related to food consumption, RBA facilitates science‐based decision‐making in food‐related areas and the development of policies and consumer advice.

Multi-Actor Approach (MAA)

Research must focus on real problems or opportunities which end-users (in this case within the food sector) need a solution to, which will require active engagement and collaboration.

Living lab (LLs)

Living Labs (LLs) are defined as user-centred, open innovation ecosystems based on systematic user co-creation approach, integrating research and innovation processes in arenas where both open innovation and user innovation processes can be studied. Thus, LLs operate as intermediaries among the so-called quadruple Helix (Civil society, Public Administration, Business and Research & Education) for joint value co-creation or validation to scale up innovation and businesses. LLs act as ‘brokers’ between citizens and organizations (academia, local government, private companies etc.), ensuring that each participant is able to contribute its knowledge and experience.

Citizen science

Active public involvement in scientific research. It may involve codeveloping objectives, collecting and analysing data, or translating the results into policy or actions.